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篇名 隱形少年現形記:檢視御宅族網際網路使用與社會資本建構-以香港御宅族為例
Discovering the “invisible youth”: An exploration of the online-offline social capital of the “otaku” youth in Hong Kong
作者 林宛瑩,張昕之
中文摘要 御宅族(otaku)是指對漫畫、動畫片和電腦遊戲(ACG)具有狂熱喜好並會主動進行研究和創作的青年人群。御宅族現象興起於上世紀七十年代末的日本,並一度在歐美、亞洲等國蔚為風潮。但隨著九十年代後期及本世紀初幾次由御宅族主導的駭人聽聞的殺人案,伴隨媒體的強化報導,御宅族一度被構建為網路成癮(internet addiction)和社交恐懼的形象。近年來隨著資訊科技的發展,對御宅族消費行為、文化創作和網路社區的研究,又重新受到重視。
本研究聚焦在香港地區的御宅族,檢視這一群人對資訊科技的使用以及其線上(online)和現實生活中(offline)社會資本的建構過程。本研究透過網路問卷填答的篩選,結合滾雪球抽樣(snowball sampling),對御宅族青年進行面對面的焦點小組訪談(focus group interview)。結果顯示,御宅族並非與社會隔絕的群體。御宅族確實如文獻所說,是ACG 的狂熱沉迷者(mania);是高度的資訊科技使用者;網路媒體是最常使用的管道。其線上行為主要可以歸納為:資訊交流(information exchange)、知識分享與貢獻(knowledge sharing and contribution),以及線上商議討論(online deliberation)。同時,這種“資訊精英”(information elite)的行為動機是利他的,不受利益驅使。
與之前的研究類似,本研究發現虛擬社群的社會資本,會轉化到現實生活中的社會資本。這是因為維繫著這些社群的互動關係的一套規範,使得網路社區內部的人際信任(interpersonal trust)程度較高。在這種原則的維繫下,御宅族的社會資本充分表現在為同伴提供社會支援,以及對社會或公民活動的參與(social/civic participation)等面向上。研究進一步發現,這種社會範式雖然得以維持,但是這會使得同一討論群組的相容性受到影響。因此,御宅族所建立和維繫的社會資本,屬於“聚合型社會資本”(bonding social capital),多過於“聯外型社會資本”(bridging social capital)。另外,我們還發現,御宅族對公民和政治參與的熱情不一。大多數的御宅族對香港本地的政治事務不是非常關心,但當事務明確影響到他們的生活利益,才會參與(例如 2003 年的七一遊行和抗議基本法二十三條的活動);而且即使是參與,也不會充當積極分子。
英文摘要 “Otaku” (御宅族) is a Japanese term referring to people with obsessive interests in animation, comic books, and nowadays new communication technologies such as the Internet, mobile phones and video games. This group often possesses unique psychological characteristics and tends to isolate from the real life while indulging themselves obsessively in the virtual world. Paradoxically, the new media that the otaku youth are deeply connected with are supposed to provide them abundant resources and to widen their social networks. Many researchers have demonstrated that social capital can be generated through connecting to the Internet and other new communication technologies, and that online social capital may complement their resources in the offline world.

This study thus intends to investigate this “online-offline” paradox by looking into the social capital of the otaku youth. Through a screening process from online surveys and snowballing, we conducted a face-to-face focus group interview in May 2010. We discovered that these otaku youths were not “invisible” at all. Rather, their animation, comics, and game (ACG) mania was demonstrated both online and offline. On the cyberspace, they actively engaged in information exchange, knowledge sharing and contribution, and online deliberation. They served as “information elites,” who were altruistic in the information sharing process.

We also found that the otaku youth adhered strictly to the group norms when participating in the forums, leading to high levels of trust in the virtual community. Hence, they tended to build “bonding social capital,” more so than “bridging social capital,” through connecting with other otakus online and offline. Furthermore, even though they were not passionate about social movements, their networks allowed them to act quickly to issues that might have a huge impact on their lives, as was demonstrated in the July 1 Protest in Hong Kong in 2003.
中文關鍵詞 御宅族(otaku),社會資本(social capital),網際網路(the internet),資訊精英 (information elite),人際信任(interpersonal trust)
英文關鍵詞 otaku, social capital, the internet, information elite, interpersonal trust
發表日期 2011-07-04
授權狀況 已授權
全文下載 隱形少年現形記:檢視御宅族網際網路使用與社會資本建構-以香港御宅族為例.pdf